During the conference on “The Philosophy of Knowledge in Turkey” organized by the Konya branch of the Writers’ Union of Turkey, Prof. Dr. Alparslan Açıkgenç made decisions on the historical process of the concept of philosophy and explained that the Western scientific tradition was fueled by Islam in the Middle Ages, but the globalized scientific tradition today is not the scientific tradition Islamic. Açıkgenç participated in the Istanbul program and broadcast live from digital channels, Prof. Dr. Bilal Kuşpınar presented from USA.
Pointing out that there is an ongoing scientific tradition in the global phenomenon, but this scientific tradition is not the tradition of Islamic science, Açıkgenç said that Islamic civilization was greatly destroyed during the Mongol invasions in history. , and that Konya’s Hz. He explained that he became a school of philosophy with names such as Mevlana and Ibn Arabi and pioneered the recovery process.
teacher. The highlights of the Açıkgenç conference are as follows:
WHAT IS THE PHILOSOPHY OF KNOWLEDGE?
The concept of epistemology is used as a branch of philosophy in Turkey. In Western philosophy, the concept of epistemology is not used at all, or even if used, in the dictionary sense; For example, as we say, it can be used as a philosophy of life, whatever we mean by that. But in the West, another usage is used in a similar sense to the philosophy of knowledge in us. It is the word epistemology. This is known as a sub-branch of philosophy. However, the concept of epistemology is broader. Epistemology refers only to the theory of knowledge. The concept of knowledge that we use is more precise than epistemology, if I think it is philosophy. Perhaps epistemology should be considered as its object.
HOW TO DEFINE INFORMATION?
Knowledge transforms people in the sense of its own nature. If we look at the importance of knowledge, which we call the informational context, in terms of knowledge, we can say in the history of philosophy that knowledge has ten basic characteristics. And they all have a point of view. First, knowledge itself is beautiful and good. In our tradition it is called hayr-i mahz. Knowledge itself is a virtue, a virtue. Knowledge is linked to human nature. Our nature is dependent on knowledge. Knowledge itself is directly related to our nature. There is a two-way relationship here. There is a moral and emotional relationship between knowledge and the person who knows.
THE COMMON POINT OF KNOWLEDGE IS THE HUMAN SPIRIT
There are also theories that are wrong in the philosophy of science. It’s well known; There are those who derive a correct application from a false theory. There are those who establish the technology; It’s based on a false theory. So, even if it’s wrong, it can also have a practical benefit. Then it’s all in our mind. False information, harmful information, useful information, good information; one thing they all have in common is that they meet in the human mind.
WHAT IS THE SITUATION OF INFORMATION PHILOSOPHY IN TURKEY?
Some universities that I know of offer courses in the philosophy of information. Some may have a different name. For example, there are those who teach under the name of information theory. Therefore, the philosophy of knowledge in Turkey is in a pleasant state. I hope it will bear much better fruit in the future. But the bottom line is; are the views that can be advanced in the philosophy of knowledge.
THE TRADITION OF SCIENCE HAS DEFENDED HUMANITY
It doesn’t matter what religion they belong to; Many people have pursued their scientific studies using and respecting the tradition of the environment in which they live. When we compare a Maimonides and a Ghazali in the past, we do not see very important philosophical differences in the theories of knowledge. Of course, they will differ in certain points of view, but their separation is not due to religion.
Today, we no longer work in isolation from all other civilizations and cultures. There is now a phenomenon called globalization. We are there right now and we are doing this globalization in this program. Mr. Bilal is in America, I am in Istanbul and we are doing a program in Konya. There is an enduring scientific tradition in this global phenomenon. The tradition of science is a tradition that belongs to humanity. But there is a situation like this; Unfortunately, this globalizing scientific tradition is not the Islamic scientific tradition. We have a weakness here. Today, it is a globalized Western science and a tradition of knowledge.
IN THE MEDIEVAL, WESTERN SCIENCE NOURISHED ON ISLAM
If only the medieval Western scientific tradition had gone global; we would have no problem today. The approaches were very similar. Christianity is also in our faith; Hz. It is a religion developed by the revelation of Jesus. Although his theology was later distorted, his point of view, moral belief and emphasis on tawhid was reflected in science as it was. These reflect more than theology, and they are the same for us. In the Middle Ages, the Western scientific tradition borrowed heavily from Islam. Almost everything was translated from us. Translation activities were carried out in Sicily, Italy, Germany and Toledo. It has been written in scientific journals that there were more than 20 translation schools in Europe, England and Spain at that time. There were Western philosophers who came and worked from Spain to Baghdad.
WE MUST PLACE ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION IN GLOBAL SCIENCE
Because of this interaction, the medieval scientific tradition suited us perfectly. Unfortunately, modernity and postmodernity and evolutionary biology that have developed in the West have completely distorted this. Today there is an understanding of science that includes many characteristics that have become harmful to mankind. There are aspects of this understanding of science that we cannot accept. Today, Muslims suffer from it. We cannot isolate ourselves. It is very important that we express them from our own point of view, which is the task of the philosophy of knowledge.
The more we can place the perspective of the scientific tradition of the Islamic civilization within the global scientific tradition, the more humanity will benefit. In fact, Western thinkers also share this view. In the meetings I attended, “Help us, there are many strengths in the Islamic tradition. I know thinkers who say that humanity should benefit from it.
THE MONGOLS DESTROYED THE ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION
The mechanism of dissemination of knowledge has established itself in a very healthy way in the Islamic civilization. Unfortunately, the entire Islamic world was devastated by the Mongol invasions. She recovered later, of course, but this destruction resulted in very significant setbacks. It has led to stagnation and major disruption of this information apparatus. It was restored later, but with the attack from the west and the collapse of the Ottoman state, this mechanism is almost completely broken today. It pushed us into the Western science tradition, the Western knowledge tradition. We fell into it.
WHAT IS THE KONYA SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY?
Konya occupies a very important place in the Islamic scientific tradition. The pioneers of this tradition and the Konya school of philosophy are two important thinkers, Hz. Mevlana and Ibn Arabi. Konevi is also important. There is also Ankaravi, who came to Konya and became Mevlevi… He also has a tendency towards Ibn-i Arabi because he comes from the philosophy branch. There is Davud El Kayseri, Molla Fenari. Hz. There are approaches that combine the thought of Mevlana and Ibn Arabi… This drew the frame of thought of the Ottoman period. This tradition continued until the death of Ahmet Avni Konuk in 1938. The late Konuk is one of the best representatives of this tradition with the works he wrote. He outlined the complete framework of Ottoman thought. To give a name to this framework, it is undoubtedly “Konya School of Philosophy”.
PHILOSOPHY IS THE SCIENCE OF SYSTEMS
In the history of philosophy, there have been philosophers who have attempted to cover up revelation. But philosophy itself has no such aim or task. Philosophy is the science of systems. The way the philosopher constructs this system depends on his theory of knowledge. In our Islamic tradition of knowledge, there is no rational way to approach subjects invisible in philosophy. Unseen things are the subject of revelation. We learn them from revelation and that is how we do philosophy.