The branch of science that studies all kinds of stones: What is lithology?

According to information transferred from WebTekno; Lithology or stone science in Turkish; It is a branch of science that examines stones and rocks found on earth according to many criteria, especially their physical properties. In lithologic studies, the physical and chemical structures of stones such as color, texture, grain structure and composition are examined. In order to avoid damaging the stones and rocks, lithology studies are often done without moving the stone and rock in the area.

Lithology studies are different from petrology, which focuses on a single stone or rock. Petrology studies a single stone or rock and ignores its surroundings. Lithology, on the other hand, chooses a region for investigations. All rocks and stones in the selected region are examined for their chemical and physical properties, and the historical process of the region in question is simulated.


Lithology, as the Turkish name suggests, deals with stones, rocks and boulders. On the stones, rocks and boulders on which research is carried out to find out their chemical and physical properties, the stages that both the studied object and the region where the object is located pass through during the historical process are determined .

As a result of lithological studies, the naming of stones, rocks and boulders is made on three basic types. As a result of investigations, an object is called igneous, sedimentary or metamorphic. Further results are attempted to be achieved by doing class-specific studies on the object, which is determined to belong to which class by basic physical examinations or detailed chemical examinations.






Stones, rocks and rocks formed in the magma of molten material that make up our Earth’s mantle are called igneous or volcanic. Objects considered in the igneous class are molten rocks containing gases and liquids. They form as a result of loss of gas and cooling of magma deep in the earth as a result of volcanic eruptions.

Apart from volcanic eruptions, magma tends to solidify in certain deep fissures. These slower endogenous objects are called igneous rocks. In terms of composition, it is possible to speak of two types of igneous rocks;

Acidic igneous rocks with high silica content and small amounts of quartz, iron and magnesium.

Basic igneous rocks containing small amounts of silica and large amounts of iron and magnesium but no quartz.


Stones, rocks and rocks formed as a result of erosion suffered by rocks already on the surface of the earth are called sedimentary. They are of exogenous origin, as they are formed from materials found on earth. Sediments containing calcium, limestone and minerals form from an existing rock as a result of a process called precipitation. So they already exist.

In the formation of sediment, water, temperature value, wind and drift are of great importance, which accelerate or slow down the sedimentation process. Although it may seem simple, this process takes millions of years. Under the effect of the external effects and the pressures of the upper layers, the sediments accumulate and end up emerging with a strong tectonic movement. Limestone is one of the best-known sedimentary examples.


Metamorphic rocks are both somewhat igneous and somewhat sedimentary, but in fact neither. They can occur deep in the earth’s crust or on the surface. There is a formation process like the sediments we know, but they are exposed to much higher pressure and much higher temperature. It is even possible to speak of magmatic gases in the process of formation of metamorphic rock at a deep point.

To give an example of the process of formation of metamorphic rocks, we can say that the magma which comes to the surface comes into contact with a rock on the surface. Another example of such formation, which has variants such as contact metamorphism and dislocation metamorphism, is the pressure that sediments and igneous rocks are subjected to during tectonic plate movements. Under the effect of this pressure, metamorphic rocks emerge.


particle structure

mineral structure




The grain structure of metamorphic and igneous rocks is extremely important because this structure is the most important finding describing the process of rock cooling. While a rock made up of large particles is igneous in structure, a rock with small particles stands out in terms of the formation process, even if it is igneous. A similar situation occurs in the grain size of rocks made up of a single mineral.


The mineral structure of rocks, also called mineralogy, can sometimes appear as structures large enough to detect with a simple magnifying glass. The mineral structure directly shows us the stages through which the rock has passed during the formation process. Different structures such as the vascular mineral structure or the granular mineral structure also help to understand this process.


Lithology can make some basic determinations by looking at even the most basic physical characteristics. The first of these is color. The examining scientist can make a basic classification simply by looking at the color of the stone, rock, or the outer shell of the rock. Of course, the colors of the parts that compose it are also extremely important.


The surface structure of a stone, boulder or boulder hides the most basic information about its formation process. For example, a surface structure called bedding is a typical feature of sedimentary rocks. To give another example, metamorphic rocks often have a fairly flat and linear surface.

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