Istanbul’s first sundial by Fatih Sultan Mehmet, Turkish astronomer, mathematician and linguist Directed by Ali Kuşçu. by Ali Kuscu Clock made on the pedestal of the minaret of the Fatih Mosque, It stands out as being one of the oldest sundials from the Ottoman period in Istanbul.
With the sundial made by Ali Kuşçu for the Fatih Mosque, the prayer time and times have been determined for years based on the angle of the well’s shadow.
Fatih Sultan Mehmet Foundation University Head of Department of History of Science Prof. Dr. Mustapha Kacar, In his statement to the AA Correspondent, he said that people have developed various tools to measure time from an early age.
Stating that the sundial is the most widely used, practical and accurate tool for determining time, Kaçar said: “Since ancient Egypt, ancient Babylon and ancient civilizations, people have measured the time by calculating the length of the sun’s shadow. was then used in the Islamic civilization, then by the Ottomans until the establishment of the Turkish Republic. he said.
teacher. Dr. Explaining that there is no longer a need for sundials in the modern age, Kaçar continued:
“Sundials are time-measuring instruments that measure real time. After the conquest of Istanbul, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Khan built a mosque there. When the construction of this mosque was completed, Ali Kuşçu, one of the greatest mathematicians and astronomers in the Islamic world, was in Istanbul.Because Fatih Sultan Mehmet Mehmet invited him to Istanbul.When he and his family came to Istanbul, a new scientific center, a new cultural center was established in Istanbul .The sundial of this mosque, according to the findings of the late Prof. Dr. A. Süheyl Unver Hodja, Ali It was built by Kuşçu in 1473. Of course, it is not as we see it, this mosque was almost completely rebuilt by the architect Tahir Efendi during the reign of Sultan Mustafa III due to earthquakes and later various destructions and took its present form.We don’t know if it has changed, but with the last restoration, with HAS tilla Bir Teacher, we got that sundial working again. I.”
“The sundial of the Fatih Mosque was designed to determine prayer times”
Emphasizing that Islamic time measurement measures real time and is adjusted according to the length of the sun’s shadow, Prof. Dr. Kaçar said that Muslims measure the day in 2 equal parts, night and day.
Pointing out that the sundial of the Fatih Mosque was designed to determine prayer times, which is people’s basic need, Kaçar said, “There are 2 sundials in the Fatih Mosque. The larger one measures times throughout the day, while the other smaller one measures the time remaining until the afternoon. Obviously, these take shape depending on the tilt of the Earth’s axis and how many degrees Istanbul is above the equator.
Stating that the long side of the sundial here is 2 meters 9 centimeters and the short side is 159 centimeters, Kaçar said:
“The mosque’s sundial is shaped like a right triangle and has three lines of tropics related to the seasons. The first is the winter tropic, the second is the equinox, and the third is the summer tropic. As this time changes, it measures between June 23 and December 21, September 20 and March 20. It also shows us the directions, periods and seasons at the same time. It shows us the moment where the shadow of the sun first came to the wall of Fatih. Mosque at this longitude, and the last time it came to us, where we are in Istanbul.”
“There are 52 sundials in Turkey”
Pointing out that there are usually sundials in Istanbul’s Selatin mosques, Prof. Dr. Kaçar said that there are 52 sundials in total at 250 points across Turkey.
Kaçar said that science and religion coexist during the hours of sunshine and said:
“Science is in the service of religion. The determination of time is done by means of these sundials. These are also done by calculations of spherical geometry. People know little about sundials. We currently have a wide variety of tools at our disposal to measure time. These tools, as we know from the very beginning, are wristwatches or other clocks arrive. Sundials are part of our culture and there is no there is not only a measurement of time, but also a serious and scientific activity. This is in our unknown mosques, squares or museums. It is very important to evaluate, protect and promote
“The sundial indicates the exact time”
teacher. Dr. Kaçar said that mechanical clocks are used today, but it is not easy to use mechanical clocks to set prayer times, but this problem can only be used artificially with the invention of electronic clocks.
Pointing out that people can adjust their real time using sundials, Kaçar said: “But they need to know how it works. Because it is also related to the world time zone. When we add the balance of the time change, i.e. the equation of time, the sundial always shows the exact time.” he said.
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