Bertrand Russell British philosopher, mathematician, historian, social critic. He presented himself as a liberal, socialist and peaceful person at various times in his life and admitted that he was not deeply attached to any of them. in Monmouthshire england He was born into one of the leading aristocratic families. Russell’s family were among the radicals of their day.
by Russell his father Viscount Amberley a was an atheist. His family was a reformist family in Britain and this influenced Russell’s way of thinking, beliefs and life. The understanding of religion underlying Russell’s work is the Christian understanding of religion. Russell examined the conflict of religion and science in different categories. The historical periods of these categories; The mercantilist period is limited to the bourgeois revolution and the passage to the capitalist economy. The scientific developments of these periods, church between (religion) and science Conflicts and scrutinized the company’s position against him.
According to Russell, science and religion are two aspects of social life; religion has been important throughout the history of human thought as we know it, while science, ancient greekin and Arabs between, after having shown a discontinuous and intermittent existence, XVI. It suddenly rose to prominence in the 19th century, and since then it has had an increasingly widespread effect on our thoughts and the institutions in which we live. There has been a long and continuous conflict between religion and science, and he says that science has emerged victorious from this conflict, saying that science has emerged from the war with religion in the historical process with absolute victory.
Russell’s Conflict medieval He states that he stands between the church and science in his time. The first pitched battle between science and religion, and in many ways the most remarkable, arose out of the astronomical disagreement over whether the sun or the earth was the center of what we now call the solar system. copernican and Galileo The solar system which is famous for the sun came into conflict with the church at the time and this caused the scientists to be sanctioned by the church.
Christian according to belief the son of god Jesus sent to the world. The world is able to occupy the most important place in the universe for this. The solar system model, which has made people feel special and shaken their egos and beliefs for years, has escalated the war between the church (religion) and science, and the church has had to take some precautions against scientists working in the field of scientific activity. The French Revolution, the rise of the bourgeoisie, nation The Church, whose power is weakening with the understanding of the state and the growing importance given to science, tries to protect absolute values by opposing science.
The idea of evolution is that the church made people believe. the specialhas shaken the belief of being special in itself. According to church teaching, the Earth was created in six days. Since then, it has included all the celestial bodies it now contains, as well as all animals and plants. Evolution The scientists who contributed to the theory are also believers, for example Newton He believed that the universe was completely created all at once. XVIII. The century acquired a distinctive piety from Newton; Accordingly, God essentially appeared as a Lawgiver who first created the world and then established rules which again rendered his intervention unnecessary and determined all subsequent events.
In this way, scientists with religious beliefs, while defending their belief in God, believed that there should be no conflict between religion and science and that they could actually progress in harmony. But Darwinism, like Copernicism, was a great blow to theology. the immutability of the species and the invalidity of many divergent acts of creation, asserted in Genesis; that a long time has elapsed since the beginning of life, which terrifies the faithful; not only does it reveal the operation of natural selection rather than the benevolence of God to explain the adaptations of animals to the environment; Worse still, evolutionists have had the courage to say that man descended from animals at the lower levels of the living hierarchy.
Generally, Darwin himself monkey It has been said that he advanced this point of view because he resembled him. Another thought that attempts to reconcile religion and science is the cosmic belief system. It is the notion that evolution has developed toward a morally worthy end, and that somehow this long evolutionary process can only be justified in that way. There are three forms of teaching: Deist, Pantheistic and the forms that we could call Emergence. The deist view, which is the simplest and most religiously inclined view, believes that God created the world and enforced the laws of nature because he intended that good would emerge in the long term.
Pantheistic Hitler He created one-man diets such as
of theology The point that science criticizes the most is morality. The study of morality traditionally consists of two parts; one of them concerns moral rules, the other what “good” is. Morality If the rules are valid if they help the existence of the good by themselves, otherwise they cannot be valid, the thought is seen as the value judgments of the scientists of the time. Protestant This understanding, which is a value judgment close to morality, can vary from one society to another. Russell’s Atheist Identity Although he is prominent, he has moderate views on religion.
According to him, there is one aspect of religious life which is considered perhaps most valuable, and that is that whatever our future thoughts about the structure of the universe, it will continue to live on independent of the discoveries of Science. Religion is a set of beliefs on the contrary, if it involves an emotion, science cannot even touch it. A purely personal religion is never unfavorable, even in the most scientific age, so long as it avoids claims that science would deem contradictory. In today’s Western world, religion is not as strong as it once was.
Science has replaced religion, people insist on the importance of rationality like in ancient Greece. The Western world religious rationality Although it may seem like a platitude, the selfish understanding of “you are the best” imposed by the church for centuries excludes non-Westerns and suggests that they remain in their own shell or lead them to a rational understanding, which is the religion of the western world. Western religion, which asserts that there are absolute good and moral values, insists that all societies must conform to them.
Although science seems to have won a victory for the Western world in its war against religion, it has transformed the religious teachings which they have been under the influence of for centuries, and imposes it on the whole world (even if not is by wars), just like the church. born of christianity dualism what the western world has learned through the teaching of the church. scientific age He is of the opinion that everyone should attain the religion of rationality, which they call the religion of rationality, and attaining it is an absolute result.
the west Besides religious elements, religious beliefs and moral values vary, and in fact, as Russell pointed out, science has created a new belief system that has not emerged victorious from its conflict with religion. the need to believe In this way, he emphasizes that he must turn to the good according to the Western world.