What are the parameters that determine the quality of sperm, what does this mean? | light of the universe

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As couples age, especially when the woman is 35+, the one year trial period should be considered 6 months. In this case, the need for couples to be examined simultaneously by gynecologists and obstetricians, and specialists in urology and andrology becomes evident. It is extremely important that couples are assessed together. Because infertility can be caused only by women, only by men, or by both men and women. In the evaluation of infertility in men, semen analysis is performed after general examinations. Sperm quality is a multidimensional concept in general and requires various parameters to be simultaneously at an optimal level. In this week’s column you can find information about the parameters that determine sperm quality and what they mean. I hope this will be useful…

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Parameters indicating the quality of sperm

The results of the laboratory after the semen analysis is carried out reflect the different values ​​obtained by the complete evaluation of the semen. With regard to the quality of the sperm, the number, motility and morphology are of decisive importance. The main reason why these values ​​have an effect on quality is the mechanism of natural pregnancy. For pregnancy to occur, first of all, the sperm in the ejaculate must meet the egg. For this session, the number of sperm in the ejaculate must be sufficient. A sufficient number of sperm alone cannot guarantee pregnancy. The sperm must be able to reach the egg in the right way and at the ideal speed and must meet the criteria for normal shape. By evaluating all these parameters together, information about sperm quality is obtained.

Total sperm count and sperm concentration

The total sperm count in the collected semen sample is one of the important parameters of semen. A minimum of 15 million sperm per milliliter of semen per ejaculate is considered sufficient for pregnancy to occur. A low sperm count is called oligospermia, and the absence of living or non-living sperm in the semen is called azoospermia. A low sperm count can indicate chronic diseases, ejaculation problems, exposure to toxic substances, hormonal imbalance, infections, and various health conditions such as varicocele.

Unlike the total sperm count, the sperm count in 1 milliliter of semen is defined as the sperm concentration. The presence of less than 15 million sperm in 1 milliliter of semen is a serious risk factor for male infertility. Low sperm concentration can be linked to both low sperm count and high semen volume.

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sperm motility

motility; It is a value that expresses the percentage of sperm moving. When ejaculation occurs during intercourse, the sperm must have the mobility to meet the egg in order for fertilization to occur. It is important that this movement has ideal characteristics as well as the mobility of the sperm. For us to speak of normal motility values, at least 40-50% of sperm must be able to move.

sperm morphology

Sperm morphology can be defined more simply as the shape of sperm. The sperm cell is made up of the head, neck and tail structures. Since 2010, the World Health Organization has recommended that the Kruger criteria be taken as the basis for the assessment of sperm morphology in its guidelines. During the semen analysis, the sperm morphology is evaluated according to the Kruger criteria and the data is defined with percentage values. For sperm morphology to be ideal, at least 4% of sperm must have a normal shape. Although sperm morphology is a lesser known phenomenon with respect to motility and count criteria, the fact that it has a significant effect on infertility cannot be ignored. If there is a problem in sperm morphology, the likelihood of encountering male infertility increases even if the sperm count is normal.

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